Probably the most popular and essential of all contributed module. Views will be integrated into Drupal 8 core.
You can fetch content from the site database and present it to visitors as lists, posts, galleries, tables, maps, graphs, menu items, blocks, reports, forum posts, etc. Different content types including nodes, users, and other bundles can be displayed.
Views UI, a submodule within Views, provides a graphical interface to a powerful SQL query builder that can access virtually any information in your database and display it in any format. Different displays can present the query results as pages with fixed URLs on your site (or URLs accepting arguments), blocks, feeds, or panel panes.
You can also use Views to present related content or implement contextual filters. For example, you can display a list of users along with links to the content they have created and/or you can display customized content to a user according to their user ID.